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plant protection chapter:1 (introduction)

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plant protection

plant protection:

The protection of fruits vegetables, cereals, ornamentals and other crops (e.g. sugarcane, cotton, tobacco etc.) in fresh, raw and processed form from insects, diseases, weeds, mites, nematodes and vertebrate pest for higher yield and best quality.










The term pest has been derived from the Greek word ”pestis’‘ which means ‘‘to annoy”. can be defined as;

(a) Any harmful organism that can cause sufficient economic losses to human being either directly or indirectly,

(b) Any organism that causes annoyance to human beings,

(c) Clerk (1970) define pests as those injurious or nuisance species, the control of which is felt to be necessary either for economic or social reasons.

(d) By pest we mean any plant or animal species that is unacceptably abundant (Bispling and Brook,1972) 

(e) pest refers to all types of biological factors that reduce crop income (insects, weeds, diseases nematodes, acari,rodents and birds) (Corlson,1973).

(f) Any living organism that compete or interfere with human being for food, shelter and other necessities of life.


Pest status concerns the ranking of pest relative to the economics of dealing with species. A termite may be beneficial if feeding on a deal in a forest, thus increasing the organic matter of the soil, but may be noxious if add to the economic loss of sugarcane. Thus, the aspect is variable and depends upon many factors. Among these, market value is one of the most important variables with all other factors held constant. A pest can assume higher or lower levels of importance because of changing economics. Susceptibility of the crop to pest injury is important variable.


World history revels numerous example of the mass destruction of crop plants by diseases and insect pest. The potato famine of Ireland which occurred in 1845 as a result of massive attack of late blight of potato, caused by Phytopthera infestans. This Famine proved that the loss of crop is actually the loss of a nation. PEOPLE form Ireland migrated to USA in masses to a avoid the famine.

The Coffee leaf rust diseases caused by HEMELIA VASTATRIX devastated coffee industry of Sri Lanka in 1870. The downy mildew (plasmopara veticola) of grapevine brought the beer industry of France to a standstill. Today insect alone destroy 30% of the worlds  food. USA is losing   9.1 billion $US due to plant diseases, 7.7billion $US due to insects and 6.2 billion $US due to weeds per annum .

Pakistans economy suffered from the greatest setback when cotton crop was attacked by cotton leaf curl virus (CLCV), transmitted by cotton whitefly, bemisia tabaci.Locust invasion cover one fifth  of  the words surface area. it invades in vast number with flocks of thousands of millions  and cause serious damage to almost all sort of vegetations. A large number of weeds infect crop plant and hamper yield and quality. The worldwide losses caused by insects, weeds and diseases are $135 billion, $150 billion and $190 billion per annum, respectively .



THERE IS A QUESTION OF HUNGER That somewhere. Half of the world still needs single bread for 24 hours. In the tropics and subtropics, there are some 70-developing nations with a population of about 2000 million which is expanding annually. In these countries, there is a widespread and persistent problem of malnutrition. The problem of improving the present diet of human beings in specific area of the world is almost always considered in term of increasing food production. an overall food increase of 200 percent by the beginning of 21IST century is considered necessary.

the population of the world is increasing day by day. the situation of population is on an alarming stage in third world, especially in Asia (India, China and Pakistan) where the cultivation land is decreasing, and population is increasing. AREA OF THE LAND IS FIXED RATHER DECREASED BY SALINITY, WATER LOGGING AND CONSTRUCTION. thus, it is very difficult to provide food to a population that is increasing at exponential rate.

Each year an estimated half to the worlds critically short food supply is consumed or destroyed by insect, molds, rodents, birds, and the other pest that attack food stuffs in the field during shipment. Experts believe that if the insects and disease that attack crops such as cereals, grams etc., in the field could be controlled, some 200 million extra tons of grain would be made available each year. This amount of grain would feed a billion people.


feed is important and provide the major diet for animals. it come form fodder crops etc. These crops are attacked by insect and other pests. Thus they add to the deterioration of the crop. Insect pests like blister beetles contain toxin that kill horse at the rate of 1mg 1 kg Boby. About 2.22 pounds of cantharidin is enough to kill a horse.


every farmer wants to get good yield of good quality so as to sell this commodity and get good cotton field, the farmers spray 4-5 time in his orchard to obtain good apples. Only good and smart plant protection practices can provide these opportunities to have good yield as will as profit.


more and good yield is the requirement od big nations so as to use a weapon against the poor nations e.g. USA has used agricultural products as a weapon to influence the foreign policies of countries like Ethiopia, Somalia, Afghanistan, Pakistan etc. A country with out self-sufficiency in agricultural products cannot formulate an independent foreign policy.









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